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A look back to: Mazda’s Rotary Engines and Hydrogen Initiative

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Mazda began in 1920, and had two transformations in name before they were officially called Mazda in 1931 although the cars still had the Mazda name on license plates before then. And they have become a successful company in many terms.

Mazda have gone it alone when it comes to engines, since 1967 Mazda have been producing cars with Dual Rotary Engines, in fact 1967, saw Mazda manufacture the World’s first dual rotary engine car, which went on sale. The car was called Cosmo Sport (S110). The rotary engine was invented by a German named Felix Wankel in 1957.

Cosmo Sport (S110)

“The Cosmo Sport recorded more than 3 million kilometers of road tests over six years. Its futuristic styling and superb driving performance delighted sports car enthusiasts throughout the world.”*1

First Two-Rotor Engine

The double rotary engine became a success for its role as provider to smooth driving, A year on 1968 saw Mazda deciding to expand from the Cosmo Sport car, and began installing double rotary engines in (large-volumes) coupes and sedans. 1970 saw Mazda begin exports of their dual rotary cars to the United States, which was a country with strict emission policies. Mazda were a keen contender to meet the standards, and did so, this was a result of Mazda’s aim since 1966 to reduce emissions, which saw the successful introduction of their exports within the U.S.

“The Model R100 (called the Familia Rotary Coupe in Japan) became the first product to be exported to the U.S., and equipped with the thermal reactor system, it met the current emission standards. Meanwhile, in the Japanese market, Mazda launched the first low-emission production vehicle in November 1972. This was the Luce AP, powered by the Type 12A (2 x 573cc) rotary engine, it came equipped with Mazda’s Rotary Engine Anti-Pollution System (REAPS).”*1

Mazda continued in the 1970’s to commit to their efficiency of fuel consumption, they developed a project dubbed the ‘Phoenix Project’ which aimed to become more fuel-efficient within one year by initially 20% and then with the final aim to reduce the consumption by 40%. With a Research and Development team backed by the entire company and a team who were so dedicated to a greener future from so early on, Mazda managed to accomplish these targets set by the ‘Phoenix Project’, it was cheers all around for Mazda and their green car vision.

“The success of the Phoenix Project was reflected in the sporty Mazda RX-7 (called the Savanna RX-7 in Japan) which was launched in 1978. As suggested by the project name Phoenix, it proved to the world that the rotary engine was here to stay.”*1

The rotary engine to date remains one of Mazda’s legacies and has seen many improvements and upgrades to see Mazda successfully becoming a champion of the rotary engine; some of these improvements have been the implementation of catalytic converter systems which provided lean burn and purified exhaust emissions.

Lean-Burn Rotary Engine

“Through fundamental engine improvements and newly developed systems, including the reaction-type exhaust manifold, the high-energy ignition system, split secondary air control, and the two-stage pellet catalyst system, Mazda finally completed the Lean-Burn rotary engine and launched it onto the market.” *1

Mazda went even further in 1982, when the company introduced a Turbo-charger for their rotary engines (The Cosmo RE Turbo), this was a first for rotary engined cars and again it was Mazda who had brought it to everyone’s attention and to the market!

It came with an electronically controlled fuel injection system, which provided the speed to make the Cosmo RE Turbo at the time, the fastest commercial vehicle in Japan, proving that rotary engined cars were special!

Mazda and their continual plans of advancements in the industry, soon after produced the “Impact-Turbo,” which was developed exclusively for the rotary engine and was crafted to ensure that the engine response and output was even better than its predecessor.

Mazda had developed the rotary engine and led to its advancements by example! Thanks to Mazda and the R&D team they came up with the most superior of rotary systems which were called the “Dynamic Supercharging system” (1983),  and the “Twin Scroll Turbo System” (1989).

In 1989, the Twin-Scroll Turbo evolved into the Twin-Independent-Scroll Turbo, which had a more simplified configuration. When this new turbocharger was coupled with other improvements in the engine, it provided more outstanding low-speed torque and improved responsiveness.

“Since 1983, Mazda has used a dual fuel injector system which features two injectors in each rotor chamber. Generally speaking, a small nozzle is more desirable at low speeds as it can atomize fuel more effectively for more stable combustion, while a large nozzle is better at high speeds as it can provide larger volumes of fuel to boost performance. Mazda’s electronically controlled fuel injection system was developed to control the supply of fuel to these nozzles over a wide range of engine operations. For the dual-rotor 13B-REW and the Triple-rotor 20B-REW rotary engines, both put into mass production in 1990, the dual injectors were further evolved into air-mixture injectors, which achieved more than double the degree of fuel atomization.” *1

As Mazda continued to develop their rotary engines to levels of extreme excellence, a pattern appears, a pattern that is of fuel efficiency and low emissions! 1990 saw Mazda’s refinement of their engines with the Type 20B-REW Rotary Engine and the Sequential Twin-Turbo, this progression from the 1960’s through to the 1990’s demonstrated Mazda’s commitment to R&D and they relied on their knowledge from early on through to the later period of the 90’s to establish themselves as leaders in the world of rotary engines, so much so that they even entered their road cars into race competitions.

“During development of the triple-rotor rotary engine, extensive road tests for performance and durability were carried out, including participation in international sports car races such as the famous Le Mans 24 Hour Endurance Race. All of which demonstrated how a mere production car could compete in the world of motor sports.” Mazda made racing history by entering the first rotary engined cars: here’s a link to where you can find out more about Mazda’s rotary engine race history, a few first place finishes against top competitors such as Porsche and Mercedes. http://media.ford.com/pdf/rotary6_e.pdf

“Mazda Chief Executive and President Takashi Yamanouchi recalled the victory of Mazda’s rotary engine at Le Mans 20 years ago, and called the rotary engine ‘iconic.'” *2

Mazda, it seems, have overcome all obstacles throughout the 60’s through to the 90’s and through to 2000, they are known for producing the World’s only rotary engine plant! Quite an achievement!

The latest and unfortunate ending to this story is that in June 2012 Mazda are said to be ending production of their Rotary engine cars!

Mazda will stop producing vehicles with its signature rotary engines in June next year because of poor sales and the costs of meeting emissions standards.

“Mazda spokeswoman Michiko Terashima said research and development on the rotary engine will continue, but production is now not making sense when considering the costs of meeting safety and emissions standards for new vehicles.”*2

“Mazda Motor Corp. said the latest edition of the Mazda RX-8 will go on sale targeting sales of 1,000 vehicles, but will end production in June 2012. The RX-8 is the only model in Mazda’s lineup with the rotary engine.” *2

Whether Mazda will re-start their rotary campaign, is what many green-car fans will be hoping for! This remains to be seen!

However there is always the Hydrogen initiative which could easily become Mazda’s new future even if rotary engines are not to be used within them!

Mazda’s Hydrogen initiative which started in 1993 with the HR-X2 and was unveiled at the 1993 Tokyo Motor show, the HR-X2 concept car featured a Hydrogen rotary engine. This car adopted metal-hydride to carry hydrogen fuel safely. Since then Mazda have produced a hydrogen-fuelled rotary engine concept at the Tokyo Motor Show in 1991. This car was called the RX8 Hydrogen RE and is a car which can also run on petrol. Since the 1980’s Mazda have been working on Hydrogen operated cars and the RX8 Hydrogen RE epitomizes their work in all its glory!

Mazda’s hydrogen engine has been developed to generate power by burning hydrogen. It is a very clean power source as it emits only water vapor rather than the gas carbon dioxide which is linked to Global warming.

“Mazda succeeded in commercializing the world’s first hydrogen rotary engine when it started leasing the RX-8 Hydrogen RE in February 2006. The vehicle provides a natural driving feel without sacrificing handling or acceleration, and offers enjoyable driving without pumping out harmful exhaust gases. The marriage of hydrogen and the rotary engine has made it possible to realize an “ultimate eco-car.”*1

Since 1991 through to 2008 Mazda have produced 12 MODELS which are hydrogen operated! There initiative is going strong and the Hydrogen Mazda green cars looks to be further prevalent in Mazda’s future! Exciting stuff!

I’ll conclude with a quote from Mazda’s Hydrogen Rotary Engine Initiative:

“The hydrogen rotary engine is a visionary power unit, leading towards a hydrogen-based eco-friendly society.”*1

SOURCES: *1 – MAZDA.COM

*2 – http://www.impomag.com/news/2011/10/mazda-stop-making-rotary-engine-vehicles

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

RE Chronicle
1588
  • Ramelli invented the first rotary piston type water pump.
1636
  • Pappenheim invented a gear type pump.
1769
  • James Watt invented the first rotary steam engine.
1799
  • Murdock also invented a rotary steam engine and succeeded in generating power.
1901
  • Cooley manufactured a rotary steam engine in which both inner and outer rotors rotate.
1908
  • Umpleby advanced Cooley’s steam engine into a rotary type internal combustion engine.
1923
  • Wallinder, Skoog, and Lundby announced their joint research on the rotary engine.
1938
  • Sensaud de Lavou further advanced the rotary theory.
1943
  • Maillard devised a compressor by applying the rotary theory.
1951
  • Felix Wankel collaborated with NSU to promote his rotary engine research and development.
1957
  • Wankel/NSU built a prototype DKM rotary engine.
1958
  • Wankel/NSU built a prototype KKM rotary engine.
1959
Jul.
  • Wankel completed the type KKM250 rotary engine.
1960
Jan.
  • Wankel/NSU tested their rotary engine in public.
1961
Jul.
  • Mazda made a technical contract with NSU and Wankel.
Nov.
  • Mazda completed its own first prototype rotary engine.
1963
Apr.
  • Mazda organized Rotary Engine Research Department.
1964
Sep.
  • A prototype sports car powered by a rotary engine is unveiled at the Tokyo Motor Show.
1967
May
  • Mazda announced the completion of the rotary engine.
    The Cosmo Sport was introduced into the domestic market.
1968
Jul.
  • The Familia Rotary Coupe was introduced.
1969
Apr.
  • Mazda exported rotary engine cars for the first time (to Australia and Thailand).
Oct.
  • The Luce Rotary Coupe (front-wheel-drive) was introduced.
    Mazda’s rotary engine car cleared the US Federal Government emissions test.
1970
Apr.
  • Mazda received award from Japanese Mechanical Engineering Society for the commercialization of the rotary engine.
May
  • Export of rotary engine cars to Europe (Switzerland) started.
  • The Capella Rotary (powered by 12A unit) was introduced.
Jun.
  • Export of rotary engine cars to the United States started.
Dec.
  • Cumulative production of rotary engine cars reached 100,000 units.
1971
Sep.
  • The Savanna Rotary was introduced.
Oct.
  • Capella G-series, the first rotary-powered automobile with an automatic transmission, was introduced.
  • Cumulative production of rotary engine cars reached 200,000 units.
1972
Jan.
  • The Capella Rotary Coupe completed 100,000km endurance run, through eleven European countries and with its engine fully sealed.
Nov.
  • The first series production car with full emission control package, the Luce Rotary was introduced.
1973
Feb.
  • Mazda’s rotary engine car cleared the U.S. 1975 emission standards, and this fact was confirmed by EPA test.
May
  • Luce AP (REAPS-2) was the first vehicle approved under the anti-pollution incentive tax in Japan.
Jun.
  • Cumulative production of rotary engine cars reached 500,000 units.
Dec.
  • The Luce AP Grand Tourismo powered by 13B engine was introduced.
1974
Jul.
  • The Parkway Rotary 26 was introduced.
1975
Apr.
  • The Roadpacer was introduced.
Oct.
  • The Cosmo AP was introduced featuring a low emission rotary engine with 40% improved fuel-efficiency.
1977
Jul.
  • Cosmo L Landau top was introduced.
Oct.
  • Luce Legato was introduced.
1978
Mar.
  • The Savanna RX-7 was introduced.
Nov.
  • Cumulative production of rotary engine cars reached 1,000,000 units.
1981
Nov.
  • The New Cosmo and Luce Rotary were introduced.
1982
Sep.
  • The world’s first turbo-charged rotary engine model was added to the。。Cosmo (929) series.
Oct.
  • The turbo-charged rotary engine model was added to the Luce (929) series.
1983
Sep.
  • The RX-7 was face-lifted and the world-first turbo rotary engine model was added.
1985
Oct.
  • The RX-7 was entirely redesigned.
1986
Apr.
  • Cumulative production of rotary engine cars reached 1,500,000 units.
Sep.
  • The Luce was entirely redesigned.
1990
Apr.
  • The Eunos Cosmo debuted featuring the world’s first three-rotor rotary engine (20B-REW).
1991
Jun.
  • The Mazda 787B achieved overall win at the 59th Le Mans 24 Hours race.
Oct.
  • The HR-X concept car (with hydrogen RE) was unveiled at the Tokyo Motor Show.
Dec.
  • The RX-7 was completely redesigned (with a 255PS 13B-REW unit).
1993
Oct.
  • The HR-X2 concept car (with hydrogen RE) was unveiled at the Tokyo Motor Show.
1995
May
  • First public road trials of a hydrogen RE vehicle in Japan.
Oct.
  • The RX-01 concept car (powered by a type MSP-RE experimental engine) was unveiled at the Tokyo Motor Show.
1996
Jan.
  • The RX-7 was face-lifted (engine output increased to 265PS).
1999
Jan.
  • The RX-7 was face-lifted (engine output increased to 280PS).
Oct.
  • The RX-EVOLV concept car with the RENESIS experimental engine was unveiled at the Tokyo Motor Show.
2001
Oct.
  • A design prototype of the Mazda RX-8 (powered by the RENESIS) was unveiled at the Tokyo Motor Show.
2003
Apr.
  • The Mazda RX-8 (with the RENESIS) introduced.
2003
Oct.
  • RX-8 Hydrogen RE (development vehicle) was unveiled.
2004
Oct.
  • RX-8 Hydrogen RE trials began on public roads with approval from the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport.
2006
Feb.
  • RX-8 Hydrogen RE launched on limited release basis
Mar.
  • Mazda Delivers First Rotary Hydrogen Vehicles to Corporate Customer Fleets
Apr.
  • Mazda Delivers Two Rotary Hydrogen Vehicles to Hiroshima Government Authorities
Jul.
  • Mazda to show RX-8 Hydrogen RE at Norway’s ONS2006 Exhibition
Oct.
  • Mazda Delivers RX-8 Hydrogen RE to Yamaguchi Government
2007
Feb.
  • Mazda Hydrogen Vehicle Takes Part in Cold Weather Testing in Hokkaido, Japan
Mar.
  • Mazda Delivers Hydrogen Rotary Engine Vehicle to Japan Automobile Research Institute
Nov.
  • Mazda to Participate in Norwegian National Project HyNor by Providing Hydrogen Cars to Norway From Summer
2008
Jun.
  • Mazda Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid Gains Government Approval to Begin Public Road Testing in Japan
Oct.
  • Mazda Hydrogen Rotary Vehicle Takes to the Road in Norway

TIMELINE CONCLUDES

FIRST PROTOTYPE ROTARY ENGINE

COSMO SPORT

Savanna RX-7

RX-8

London Riots: News on Shooters Update

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When the riots took place in 2011 across the nation I reported that the Police and a helicopter were fired upon ELEVEN TIMES during the riots in August, occuring in Aston, Birmingham.

Below is a Helicopter infrared video still of two men who as I reported at the time “are wanted by the police.”

They have now been given jail sentences between 12 and 30 years; the youngest member of this group last name Rehman was ‘found guilty of riot and firearms possession with intent’ and given the shortest sentence of the group, he will be serving 12 years in prison.

The sentences were given to seven members of the group which were caught on Infra-red Camera by a police helicopter, which was shot upon during this incident in August 2011, they have been charged for firearms possession, reckless arson and rioting.

The following are photos from the Daily Mail showing the culprits and their sentences.

Nicholas Francis, 26, was described by the judge as ‘a dangerous man’ and was jailed for 30 years, the 5 others are Lewis, 27, and Laidley, 20, both jailed for 23 years, Farrell, 20, and Collins, 25, both jailed for 18 years, 17-year-old, named as Rehman after judge lifts order, gets 12 years.

Judge Davis also said of the crimes committed by the latter, that :

“The purpose of all this was not to loot or to steal, nor was it mindless vandalism. The purpose, the common purpose, was to behave in such a way that the police would come to the scene and then to attack the police.”

At the time my blog reported that eleven shots had been fired, this number of shots fired at the police and the helicopter is now said to be around 12 and reports have come through that a total of four fire-arms were being used by the members of this group.

They have been linked to two gangs within Birmingham; to fire these many shots at police officers and a Police Helicopter is beyond outrageous, they are now facing what seems to be the full extent of the law for their actions of intending to endanger life as Judge Davis pointed out in court.

 

The convicted rioters firing at the police helicopter during the Birmingham riots

The above shows a member of this mob, of which there were around 40, taking aim at Police officers, Judge Davis went on to comment on the seriousness of this action and other similar actions on that day (9th August 2011) he said in court:

“The intention was to endanger life. Although no physical injury was suffered, that was wholly a matter of luck. Had the police helicopter been struck, the consequences could have been catastrophic. There may have been no physical injury to a police officer, but the damage to the wellbeing of the city of Birmingham caused by an armed gang prepared to act in this way was grave. It is very difficult to conceive a case of this type more serious than this one.”

At the time Chief Constable of West Midlands, Chris Sims said in a statement of the helicopter footage that: “This footage shows seemingly co-ordinated criminal behaviour with no regard for people’s lives, whether it be through the setting of a fire, shooting at unarmed officers or shooting at the police helicopter.”

It was not only the police who were targeted by the mob on that night but also The Barton Arms pub, it was smashed and set alight whilst the residents inside the pub took refuge in a room above the pub.

They caused much damaged to the Barton Arms pub and other premises in the area by throwing petrol bombs and smashing shop windows with chairs. Officers in patrol cars attempted to stop the looting and rioters, the police cars had petrol bombs thrown at them; at 11.50pm officers attempted to disperse the group, this was when the 12 shots were fired at them and at the West Midlands helicopter.

Below is a video from the Guardian.co.uk which shows the events of that dangerous night.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/video/embed

http://gu.com/p/386at

Judge Davis went on to say in his statements about the sentencing of these 6 individuals:

“It is pure good fortune that no police officer was hit by one or more of those shots. There was gunshot damage to a wall immediately below where the police officers were standing. There was gunshot damage to a building behind them indicated that bullets passed just over their heads. Those who fired the shots were not standing alone. Many members of the group remained close to them as they did so.”

These fired bullets it would evidently seem were very close to injuring or taking the life of one or more of the police officers on the scene on that night. Further remarks from Judge Davis include “When the firearms were used, that was not done randomly. There was a concerted attack on the police with guns.”

“Had the police helicopter been struck, the consequences could have been catastrophic. There may have been no physical injury to a police officer. The damage to the well-being of the city of Birmingham caused by an armed gang prepared to act in this way was grave.”

Whether the Police will be making further arrests regarding this incident, remains to be seen.

What is definate is that those who go to court if arrested, will most likely receive sentences from 12 years upwards for this plot to endanger police life and deliberately bring the police to the scene only to begin an attack on them.

I’ll conclude with a quote from the judge who remarks generally about the riots in Birmingham:

Judge Davis said: “No ordinary person could walk the streets of the ­centre of Birmingham in safety.”

This sums up the atmosphere around everywhere at the time these riots took place all around the nation, the controversial decision to go ahead with police cuts is now questionable more than ever.The Police organised a march in protest at these cuts, the march went ahead and whether there will be more cuts to be made is what many will not want to see.

The Jaguar C-X16: Concept car to Car of Frankfurt 2011 to Production Car!?

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The C-X16 is one of Jaguar’s latest car out! And its a sports two-seater coupe` Concept car!

The Jaguar C-X16 was first showcased at the Frankfurt Motorshow 2011 which lasted from September 13th to September 25th, 2011.

This Jaguar to quote is “the most compact and responsive Jaguar in a generation” it is also a ‘Hybrid’ and is able to travel at speeds of up to 50 mph on electric power. It is the smallest Jaguar since the XK120 (1948 – 1954) in terms of the length  and has a next-generation supercharged 3.0 litre V6 petrol (hybrid) engine. The C-X16 also has the option of eight speed gearbox changes. This car is said to exemplify Jaguar’s new design route.*1

Traditionally the “C “in Jaguar used to stand for competition and was the letter of choice for the race car called the Jaguar XK120-C; the “C” is more relevant in today’s time for Concept and this car is a concept car making it all the more desirable. The ‘X’ stands for Experimental.

The Jaguar is a rear-wheel drive, with an aluminium structure, it is also well-balanced with a 50:50 weight distribution and this is what’s really needed when overtaking and compliments the  “Push to Pass” button which supplies electrically charged boosts and has an output of 70 kW and 235Nm (the button is red and found on the steering wheel).

These charges are produced by the battery pack which is found behind the seats and is charged progressively as the car brakes, this is called the regenerative braking system.

(“The battery pack is predominantly charged through a rear axle electro-hydraulic brake energy regeneration system.”)*1

There will be a graphic on the dashboard that shows when the boosts can be deployed and all the driver has to do is use the boost button which provides 70kW and 235Nm of torque for up to 10 seconds.

“A hybrid, the C-X16 combines searing performance with beautifully realised styling. The C-X16 measures 4,445 mm in length, 2,048 mm in width and 1,297 mm in height and has a wheelbase measuring 2,622 mm.”*2

CO2 emissions are 165g/km putting it in the middle which is band yellow and in terms of road tax it is grade G which is approximately £165 per year although this car is considered one of the green cars of the Frankfurt Motorshow 2011 as it is a hybrid and if this technology is put to its maximum use by the owner then this car is set to be a green icon for sure, especially as it can run on electric power alone.

Any combination of power with this car is possible whether it be petrol or electric or both. The V6 engine is under the bonnet at the front and this C-X16 will rival Porsche’s 911.

The C-X16 is an upgrade to Jaguar’s 2010 model the C-X75 which is a plug-in hybrid and started of as a concept car (as the C-X16 is although will be manufactured for the road too).

The C-X75 is in the stages of being produced and the C-X16 is similar to the C-X75 as they both share the shape of the front grille (more on this later) and the wrap-around rear lights. The top-speed of the Jaguar C-X16 is limited to 186mph and is capable of 0-62mph in 4.4 seconds and 50-75mph in 2.1 seconds.

The interior has carbon-fibre racing seats covered in red leather and there is use of suede, aluminium and additional carbon-fibre throughout the interior of the car.

The interior has automatic venting systems which appear from being hidden to provide hot or cold air and retract when the desired temperature has been reached. This provides a sophisticated look to the interior and makes use of innovative technology which is showcased intelligently and is nothing less than smooth, as the entirety of the interior is; the knobs for the air-conditioning also have mini-displays on them which show the temperature! Cool! 🙂

The seats can be heated or cooled to desired temperatures a handy function for all conditions. There is also a dual functional switch-gear: “The switchgear is framed in carbon-fibre and features subtle “watch-like” dark chrome highlights while the gearlever and dynamic mode selector switch are surrounded by red anodised aluminium to emphasise their purpose.”*1

“The interior design takes inspiration for elements of its layout from aeronautical ergonomics, such as the joystick-style gearlever and banks of toggle switches that also reference classic racing Jaguars.”*1

With this Jaguar, the emphasis is on its design and technology ensuring that whilst seated in an amazingly looking beast, you will still find a luxurious atmosphere around you. There is a touch-screen on-board computer which can sync with your Blackberry device (or other smart-phones) to enable the driver to access their phone functions; this has been called the ‘Connect and View’ application.

The phone slots into an aluminium tray between the front seats, and then ‘connects’. This connecting of the smart-phone will enable functions such as accessing the driver’s phone music libraries on the touch-screen and the smart-phone’s navigation system as well as enabling the driver to make phone calls or receive them. All these small interior touches are what makes the car a luxurious vehicle!

To provide as much of a taut posture as possible, Jaguar have provided a cacooned feel about the interior to give you a racing feel and this is much to do with the exterior which has taut lines throughout its body to provide the aero-dynamicity and a look which gives the impression of a car that is ready to go at any moment!

“The exterior design is startling in its simplicity, defined by three ‘heartlines’; the front wing crease, the rear haunches that wrap into the tail and the sweeping roofline.”*1

In addition to the exterior being beautifully sculptured, there is the new design element, which has of late, become Jaguar’s latest trademark, I am of course referring to the trapezoidal shaped grille at the front of the car, which is also present in the C-X16’s predecessor concept car the C-X75 and more recently the XF and XJ models.

Alongside the grille are two air-vents on either side (view the photos at the bottom of the page) which scoop into an abyss giving the car a fiery racing appearance.

The bonnet is shaped definitively and has fine in-warding curves on either side with a bump in the middle which appears enchantingly to give the C-X16 further finesse about it; Besides the soft bump are side air vents in darker grey and there is also a lip in darker grey which ever-so slightly protrudes from just beneath the grille.

This colour theme of darker grey is present throughout the interior and exterior of the car giving the car a classy look. And on the sides of the doors, the aluminium body takes an inward straight down the length of the car, providing the aero-dynamicity needed for this hybrid to be able to produce those quick starts and consistent top-speeds whilst flying down those straights. The doors have standard handles (built into the body and do not jut out in the slightest) – Jaguar could have demonstrated further originality in this department like they do with the rest of this concept car, although these handles are practical and fit in well with the look of the car.

If you view the car from the rear you will notice twin exhausts on either side and this gives the car a sportier appearance! The C-X16 has red-brake calipers which fit in with the red motif of the interior and the alloy-wheels are twin spoked in a chrome and darker chromed colour, which many would look at in awe!

There are air-vents on the side of the wings which are red in colour and are far from an eye-sore. The C-X16 has a similarity with the 1961 E-type as they both have a rear window which opens (to the right side – if viewed from the rear) in extravagant fashion.

The lights at the rear are red in colour and are horizontal and lengthy and the within the middle of these horizontal lights are semi-circled brake lights. The front lights are xenon and big in shape completing the look of the C-X16. What this Jaguar could be said to be missing are indicators on the wing mirrors and a spoiler, which could give the C-X16 a further completeness about it, although many may disagree.

The body of the car is made from aluminium rather than steel, giving the car extra lightness which is what makes this car a dream to race or push to its limits on say the German Autobahn’s (Motorway)! And here’s the scientific bit, as the car heats up there is a liquid cooling system which works on both the electric battery pack and the electric motor.

This deliberate styling and use of the best technology about, ensures that the car is agile, handles well, has the fastest of acceleration times, and has shorter braking distances, which makes the C-X16, a driver’s desired package, in any car let alone this conceptualized reality, which for many a Jaguar fan, will be a wish come true.

And to further add to Jaguar’s forte` there is an intelligent start/stop system: “The system can shut down the engine in just 300 milliseconds after the car has come to rest and utilises a Twin Solenoid Starter (TSS) that is capable of restarting it in the time it takes the driver’s foot to travel from the brake to the accelerator. This provides for faster recovery and seamless performance and is the first time such a system has been used with a supercharged engine.”*1

The production road car will enter the automobile arena as soon as 2013 although Jaguar have been keeping it to themselves whether the C-X16 will be produced (costing an estimated £55,000 -£70,000!) or whether the alternative (the F-Type) which will be a convertible (the F-type looks to be out in 2013) and inspired by the C-X16 will be the one to take the stage in place of a hard-top C-X16 production car!?

I’ll conclude with a quote from the chief designer of the car, Ian Callum:

“Jaguars have always been dramatically different. With the C-X16 we have moved the current award-winning design language on to the next generation, creating a car that is the very essence of future Jaguar performance.”*1

 

*1- (Jaguar.com)

*2- (Greencarsite.co.uk)

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