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MC DUCK RAP FREESTYLES 2016 – Explicit Lyrics – Parental Advisory

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November 11, 2015 at 3:44 am

MC DUCK RAP FREESTYLES 2016 – Explicit Lyrics – Parental Advisory

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Written by Raj

October 29, 2015 at 7:46 pm

Teleporting experiment on the Brain!

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brainThis experiment shows how the brain constructs an identity or sense of self when posed with the situation of being teleported.

Teleporting – What did the Scientists do?

Scientist Arvid Guterstam is a neuroscientist at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden and worked with his team to find out through this perceptually illusory experiment what and how parts of the brain process, produce and react to teleporting their body to somewhere else.

Fifteen people were experimented on to learn the brain activity that goes on in there heads when faced with Scientists Guterstam’s illusion which gives the experimented participants a realistic teleporting experience with visuals and the sense of touch is applied in this experiment to provide the full teleporting feel.

And how did they do it?

The fMRI (Brain scanner) machine scanned the participants whilst they were laying on their backs, whilst attached to them was a visual display screen which was attached to a camera on a mannequin in the same room. The experiment allowed the person to look through the eyes of the dummy, which shows the room (and themselves in the scanner) in the dummy’s point of view. Then the sense of touch is brought into the experiment when simultaneously the dummy is stroked alongside the person in the scanner. Providing the teleporting experience.

dummy

What happened?

The Scientists found that the brain experiences an out of body experience and they were able to see the parts of the brain that were working when this happened, a key finding was learning the brains sense of the self through body and the sense of self location. Identifying the parts of the brain that were being stimulated was key and this happened through comparing the results of the participants with a map like study of brain patterns which were analysed and then compared.

arvid

What part of the Brain lights up in a fMRI Scan whilst in a teleporting experience?

The posterior cingulate cortex, a region deep in the middle of the brain, near the back of the head lit up when faced with the teleporting experience and combined the ability to perceive sense of self through the body and the sense of self location.

Before the experiment little was known about the uses of the posterior cingulate cortex in the latter functions; “We normally discover a lot about brain function by studying people who have had a stroke, but the cingulate cortex is located in between stroke-prone areas and is rarely affected itself. “This means we know little about its function, it’s a very mysterious area.” Said Neuro-scientist Arvid Guterstam (above).

What the Scientists knew before the experiment:

“What Scientists did know was that the cingulate cortex was already linked with emotion formation, memory and learning, and that any abnormal activity in the cingulate cortex has been linked to depression and schizophrenia and (as they expected from previous and other experiments/studies/findings) the parietal lobe and premotor cortex were also involved in generating the teleporting illusion.

“These parts of the brain are known for integrating information from different senses to build higher representations of the body,” says lead author of the study Guterstam. Other areas, known to house specialised place and grid cells that help us navigate, were also active during the illusion.

“This finding is particularly interesting because it indicates that place cells are not only involved in navigation and memory encoding, but are also important for generating the conscious experience of one’s body in space,” says principal investigator Henrik Ehrsson, professor at the Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.

Brainstorm

Social Context:

The teleporting experience shows the beginnings of study into the perceptual self and the mapping in the future of the brain to provide a succint picture of the brains functions. This study came about in inspiration of the Studies in rats which has shown that specific regions of the brain contain GPS-like ‘place cells’ that signal the rat’s position in the room – a discovery that was awarded the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology of Medicine. To date, however, it remains unknown how the human brain shapes our perceptual experience of being a body somewhere in space, and whether the regions that have been identified in rats are involved in this process.

“The sense of being a body located somewhere in space is essential for our interactions with the outside world and constitutes a fundamental aspect of human self-consciousness,” says Arvid Guterstam. “Our results are important because they represent the first characterization of the brain areas that are involved in shaping the perceptual experience of the bodily self in space.”

diabrain

Conclusion:

The experiment of the rats was a key point in this type of Science and this teleporting experiment is also a key point and a stepping stone to the beginning of this kind of scientific study which links so well with the social aspect and study of our perceptions of the self in a social context. Future studies like this are likely to occur given the buzz around the field for Mind mapping and whether they will identify key factors in the functioning of the brain as did Arvid Guterstam and his team is likely to take place over time, however the race seems to be on to Map the mind as soon as possible.

Stop the South London Incinerator vs Breathe!

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Written by Raj

April 27, 2015 at 12:07 am

Shree Radha Krishna 2015 video remix!

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March 3, 2015 at 10:52 pm

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Space color – Water color Video remix!

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February 27, 2015 at 10:11 pm

Tujhe Bhula Diya vs Classic Bollywood

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Voldemort Ghosts & Bhangra

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NEW DNA a breakthrough in Science!

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Science has made a breakthrough!

New DNA discovered!

A discovery of a new type of DNA and a discovery of a new unknown.

DNA2

Synthetic Biology Scientists have created the First Living Organism with extended and Evolutionary New DNA .

Who  created this Living organism which is a semi-synthetic bacterium brought about by working with Algae and Ecoli Bacterium;

A team of Scientists in California from The Scripps Research Institute:

TSRI Associate Professor Floyd E. Romesberg, led the research team.

DNA!

What is DNA?

DNA IS SHORT FOR : “Deoxyribonucleic acid”

DNA is a molecule that encodes the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms.

DNA is special, because it holds the code for every cell in your body.

DNA is used by every cell in the body, the DNA is an instruction manual for the cells which use it for reference in forming and the DNA essentially assigns the cells with a role of what to do.

In addition and summary, DNA takes the shape of a double stranded helix and is a twisted long ladder like spiralled chain of nucleotides which carry the programming of certain codes for every cell in your body.

The team recently published their report and exclusive coverage was given to Nature Journal, , the lead author of the new report Denis A. Malyshev, a member of the Romesberg laboratory was lead author of the new report, here are a few snippets from the report:

“Organisms are defined by the information encoded in their genomes, and since the origin of life this information has been encoded using a two-base-pair genetic alphabet (A–T and G–C). In the science laboratory the alphabet has been expanded to include several unnatural base pairs (UBPs).

“The expansion of an organism’s genetic alphabet presents new and unprecedented challenges” the latter was said in context of within the laboratory although also rings well in the case of all the World outside of Science.

What does this mean for DNA in general?

The dangers of this are to Nature taking up these new properties of DNA as we now know it, it would be alien man made DNA which could prove dangerous, however the scientists take all precautions to prevent this happening by Neutralising the Bacterium so it cannot multiply or interact with Nature.

The only disadvantage with this NEW DNA is that it needs to be provided with the standard necessay building blocks of DNA which then allows it to go on to create new DNA and through evolution pass this DNA on, as an inherant trait, so this new DNA has to be provided with building blocks, its only limitations. However with this type of DNA, it could prove useful as many synthetic biological bacterium have gone on to do and are still researching into; Such as Ecoli in Diesel, bacterium in the industry of Medicine, DNA studies/manipulation/replication are also happening in IVF, Breast cancer, Ovarian Cancer, Bowel Cancer, Lung Cancer and many more, the aim is to monitor the DNA initially and then try to programme it to fight diseases and cancers, also in the identification stages there can be options to have prevantative surgery, which without DNA there would not be that identification process to assess who needs surgery and who doesn’t.

The industry of Medical healthcare has benefited from DNA research programmes, it helps Dr’s to understand things like life better, genes, life cycles, diseases, illnesses, and can help to better prevent medical problems.

The problems DNA faces are that of how ethical this type of studying and replicating is, also if this information on DNA fall into the hands of the wrong people it can lead to problems, such as Insurance companies assesing you on the merit of your DNA.

Raj News spoke to Dr Nana Oppong, a GP, he said “there has to be strong controls on DNA information, and there are dangers in reliance on DNA and genes and a reliance on replicating DNA and genes, there is a danger to the environment with the issue of self replication, like we’ve seen in IVF where people want certain sexes for their babies, there has to be a controlled process to prevent these dangers to the self, nature and the environment.”

DNA in Science to be more specific Biology, has discovered a breakthrough in DNA, so what can this DNA do?

Well THE DNA IS WHATS NEW ABOUT THIS LIVING ORGANISM (BACTERIUM – E COLI),THE DNA is unknown to nature, also it can transmit its DNA to other DNA make up, for example DNA was before in the Alphabet as A, B, C, D, now with this new DNA it can not only match into a DNA structure and pass on its new DNA it also is the new E and F letters found in this semi-synthetic Bacterium that make up the new DNA alphabet.

This DNA is not only partly artificial, it is also partly real, this Bacterium is a living organism, and as it is unseen before in the Science world of synthetic biology which has seen many Scientist all endeavour with experiements such as the reports published recently by research teams mapping the human proteome maps, with which their reports nearly complete in full the human map for proteome.

So this means a new pair of letters in the Alphabet of DNA’s molecular structure! It also means a new pair of bases in DNA’s molecular structure that are unknown and not found in Nature or the Human. Amazing that this discovery came about via partly artificial bacteria that has produced a new set of DNA.

The Make up of DNA
The DNA in a cell is a pattern made up of four different parts called nucleotides.

An alphabet that has only four letters. DNA is a long string of these four letters.The four letters usually pair in two’s and this is standard behaviour for DNA formation, although there are certain discrepancies that happen in a variation of the standard pairing formula of DNA.

Now we have new letters in the world of DNA and this is a real scientific breakthrough.

This breakthrough has been made in the fields of synthetic biology, which has seen a real buzz in this industry from its time 15 years ago, when this synthetic technoilgoy allowed for this type of experimentation.

What is synthetic biology?

  • Synthetic biology refers to both:
    • the design and fabrication of biological components and systems that do not already exist in the natural world
    • the re-design and fabrication of existing biological systems.

There are two types of synthetic biologists. The first group uses unnatural molecules to mimic natural molecules with the goal of creating artificial life. The second group uses natural molecules and assembles them into a system that acts unnaturally. In general, the goal is to solve problems that are not easily understood through analysis and observation alone and it is only achieved by the manifestation of new models. So far, synthetic biology has produced diagnostic tools for diseases such as HIV and hepatitis viruses as well as devices from biomolecular parts with interesting functions. The term “synthetic biology” was first used on genetically engineered bacteria that were created with recombinant DNA technology which was synonymous with bioengineering. Later the term “synthetic biology” was used as a mean to redesign life which is an extension of biomimetic chemistry, where organic synthesis is used to generate artificial molecules that mimic natural molecules such as enzymes.

dna-science

WHAT DID THEY DO AND WHAT DID THEY ACHIEVE:
In the new study, the team synthesized a stretch of circular DNA known as a plasmid and inserted it into living cells of the common bacterium E. coli.

A key problem was in finding DNA BASE PAIRS that would synchronise with standard DNA and not be attacked by the DNA’s self defense mechanism.

They achieved in getting the E. coli cells to replicate these semi-synthetic DNA bases, which it is capable of replicating.

The new dna bases are not similar at all to standard DNA as the chemical make-ups are considerably different.

What they did in a quote:
“What Romesberg and his team managed to do was insert a small loop of DNA – a plasmid into an Escherichia coli cell – that’s E. coli to you and me, a bacteria that’s usually harmless but can occasionally be quite nasty, indeed.

When the E. coli bacteria replicated, it not only copied its natural DNA, but also created a new pair of the alien bases, and kept doing so generation after generation for nearly a week, until the supply of the nucleoside triphosphates necessary to build the alien bases, which were in a fluid surrounding the bacteria, ran out.”

http://www.theregister.co.uk/2014/05/08/boffinary_breakthrough_first_selfreplicating_life_with_alien_dna/

HOW DID THEY DO IT?

Romesberg and his laboratory have been working since the late 1990s to find pairs of molecules that could serve as new, functional DNA bases—and, in principle, could code for proteins and organisms that have never existed before.

With this latest discovery MAY 7th 2014, Romesberg’s laboratory had discovered, two molecules known as d5SICS and dNaM. The goal was to get the E. coli cells to replicate this semi-synthetic DNA as normally as possible.

The experiment involved the use of two new base molecules – known as d5SICS* and dNaM*, (THE name of the two NEW DNA) -, scientists found thaTht these molecules could be stably incorporated as a pair into a standard stretch of DNA known as a ‘plasmid’ molecule in vitro (in the “test tube”.).  The E COLI BACTERIUM then went on to form with the plasmid DNA, which only contained natural T-A and C-G base pairs (strands of DNA) along with the best-performing unnatural base pair.

The research was funded in part by the US National Institutes of Health

DNA GREEN

Why are Scientists globally working to redesign bacterium?

This is because Bacteria are the simplest known objects from the natural world that are capable of replicating when provided with only simpler components (e.g., broth). Still, bacteria are far from simple. Bacteria also provide the basic environment in which synthetic biological systems exist and act (i.e., they are like the power supply and chassis of a computer). By re-designing/refactoring a simple living system we hope to learn how to better couple (and decouple) our designed systems from their host environment.

MORE ON SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY and Scientists:

Synthetic biologists are trying to assemble unnatural components to support Darwinian evolution. Recently, the engineering community is seeking to extract components from the biological systems to test and confirm them as building units to be reassembled in a way that can mimic the living nature.

In the engineering aspect of synthetic biology, the suitable parts are the ones that can contribute independently to the whole system so that the behavior of an assembly can be predicted.

 

DNA RED

 

The History of DNA :

DNA consists of double-stranded anti-parallel strands each having four various nucleotides assembled from bases, sugars and phosphates which are made of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and phosphorus atoms.

“With analysis and observation alone, scientists convince themselves that the paradigms are the truth and if the data contradicts the theory, the data normally is discarded as an error, where synthesis encourages scientists to cross into the new land and define new theories.

The same synthesis has long been used in chemistry such as chromatography. The combination of chemistry, biology and engineering can therefore create artificial Darwinian systems.”

To conclude – DNA has always remained the same throughout Nature since the dawn of the earth, now the unknown DNA is in stark contrast to the view that everyliving thing has the same DNA. The oldest evolutionary ancestral human DNA to date is 40,000 years old and is the same make up as the DNA of everything else, now will this new UNKNOWN DNA work in finding further new discoveries in the spiralling world of DNA?

Other interesting fields making breakthroughs in Science are the Proteme study, which is the study of The Human Proteome Map, which maps the proteins within the body and its functions. (Links to sites below).

http://phillysportsreport.com/science-27/independent-research-groups-publish-near-complete-human-proteome-maps-240.html

Also there are in the world of biology things like extreme cross breeding to bring about Spider Goats (Synthetic biology used to cross breed ‘spiders qualities to goats. )

http://www.theguardian.com/science/2012/jan/14/synthetic-biology-spider-goat-genetics

And Stell cell embryo research : Stem Cells have the potential to develop into many different cell types in the body during early life and growth. In addition, in many tissues they serve as a sort of internal repair system, dividing essentially without limit to replenish other cells as long as the person or animal is still alive. When a stem cell divides, each new cell has the potential either to remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell. There are studies of both adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells.

http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/pages/basics1.aspx

Here’s a link for ‘explaining DNA simply put’

http://tfscientist.hubpages.com/hub/explaining-dna-to-a-six-year-old

And finally I mentioned about the Oldest Human DNA Is 400,000 Years Old – here’s the link:

http://www.ibtimes.com/oldest-human-dna-400000-years-old-why-do-scientists-call-discovery-irritating-1495796

Nelson Mandela and Maya Angelou: Tribute Poem by Raj : Inspiring Leaders

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leaders

At Nelson Mandela’s funeral, Maya Angelou read a poem written by her for him, this time I would like to post a poem I have written for both of them.

I’d like to say that they both were leaders of significant importance and they should be remembered for all their hard work and dedication and the movements they led, tirelessly, they are the role models of their time and I remember them for that.

My Poem by Raj:

Inspiring Leaders

The loss of your Lives, your Lives, your Lives,

Those Movements of your lives, your lives, your lives, are remembered with the actions, actions, actions of your lives.

Movements that you thought.

Movements that you dreamt.

Movements that you fought.

Movements that you led.

Movements that you loved.

Movements that you lived.

For those Movements you spent, your lives, your lives, your lives.

Movements that you inspired through difficult times, inspiring throughout your lifetime, they went on to span thousands of miles and touched millions of lives, lives, lives.

Those Movements, you saw us through, with Peace and Love, hand in hand and broke through barriers of race, colour, hatred, discrimination, war and much, much more.

Movements, Movements, Movements, Moments, Moments, Moments,

Movements that you led, with everything that you had, and with everything that you said, people you inspired, whilst you never tired.

Your lives your lives your lives, for a better World, in service of humanity.

In every Movement you were there for every moment, in effort to make the World a better place.

Everyone will remember you for all your important moments and will always be inspired by your lives, your lives, your lives, in your every moment, moment, moment, you have only inspired, inspired, inspired our Lives, our Lives, our Lives.

Thank you for your leadership.

 

Raj Mehta

Written by Raj

May 30, 2014 at 12:50 am

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