Raj News

Raj News

Posts Tagged ‘California

NEW DNA a breakthrough in Science!

leave a comment »

Science has made a breakthrough!

New DNA discovered!

A discovery of a new type of DNA and a discovery of a new unknown.

DNA2

Synthetic Biology Scientists have created the First Living Organism with extended and Evolutionary New DNA .

Who  created this Living organism which is a semi-synthetic bacterium brought about by working with Algae and Ecoli Bacterium;

A team of Scientists in California from The Scripps Research Institute:

TSRI Associate Professor Floyd E. Romesberg, led the research team.

DNA!

What is DNA?

DNA IS SHORT FOR : “Deoxyribonucleic acid”

DNA is a molecule that encodes the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms.

DNA is special, because it holds the code for every cell in your body.

DNA is used by every cell in the body, the DNA is an instruction manual for the cells which use it for reference in forming and the DNA essentially assigns the cells with a role of what to do.

In addition and summary, DNA takes the shape of a double stranded helix and is a twisted long ladder like spiralled chain of nucleotides which carry the programming of certain codes for every cell in your body.

The team recently published their report and exclusive coverage was given to Nature Journal, , the lead author of the new report Denis A. Malyshev, a member of the Romesberg laboratory was lead author of the new report, here are a few snippets from the report:

“Organisms are defined by the information encoded in their genomes, and since the origin of life this information has been encoded using a two-base-pair genetic alphabet (A–T and G–C). In the science laboratory the alphabet has been expanded to include several unnatural base pairs (UBPs).

“The expansion of an organism’s genetic alphabet presents new and unprecedented challenges” the latter was said in context of within the laboratory although also rings well in the case of all the World outside of Science.

What does this mean for DNA in general?

The dangers of this are to Nature taking up these new properties of DNA as we now know it, it would be alien man made DNA which could prove dangerous, however the scientists take all precautions to prevent this happening by Neutralising the Bacterium so it cannot multiply or interact with Nature.

The only disadvantage with this NEW DNA is that it needs to be provided with the standard necessay building blocks of DNA which then allows it to go on to create new DNA and through evolution pass this DNA on, as an inherant trait, so this new DNA has to be provided with building blocks, its only limitations. However with this type of DNA, it could prove useful as many synthetic biological bacterium have gone on to do and are still researching into; Such as Ecoli in Diesel, bacterium in the industry of Medicine, DNA studies/manipulation/replication are also happening in IVF, Breast cancer, Ovarian Cancer, Bowel Cancer, Lung Cancer and many more, the aim is to monitor the DNA initially and then try to programme it to fight diseases and cancers, also in the identification stages there can be options to have prevantative surgery, which without DNA there would not be that identification process to assess who needs surgery and who doesn’t.

The industry of Medical healthcare has benefited from DNA research programmes, it helps Dr’s to understand things like life better, genes, life cycles, diseases, illnesses, and can help to better prevent medical problems.

The problems DNA faces are that of how ethical this type of studying and replicating is, also if this information on DNA fall into the hands of the wrong people it can lead to problems, such as Insurance companies assesing you on the merit of your DNA.

Raj News spoke to Dr Nana Oppong, a GP, he said “there has to be strong controls on DNA information, and there are dangers in reliance on DNA and genes and a reliance on replicating DNA and genes, there is a danger to the environment with the issue of self replication, like we’ve seen in IVF where people want certain sexes for their babies, there has to be a controlled process to prevent these dangers to the self, nature and the environment.”

DNA in Science to be more specific Biology, has discovered a breakthrough in DNA, so what can this DNA do?

Well THE DNA IS WHATS NEW ABOUT THIS LIVING ORGANISM (BACTERIUM – E COLI),THE DNA is unknown to nature, also it can transmit its DNA to other DNA make up, for example DNA was before in the Alphabet as A, B, C, D, now with this new DNA it can not only match into a DNA structure and pass on its new DNA it also is the new E and F letters found in this semi-synthetic Bacterium that make up the new DNA alphabet.

This DNA is not only partly artificial, it is also partly real, this Bacterium is a living organism, and as it is unseen before in the Science world of synthetic biology which has seen many Scientist all endeavour with experiements such as the reports published recently by research teams mapping the human proteome maps, with which their reports nearly complete in full the human map for proteome.

So this means a new pair of letters in the Alphabet of DNA’s molecular structure! It also means a new pair of bases in DNA’s molecular structure that are unknown and not found in Nature or the Human. Amazing that this discovery came about via partly artificial bacteria that has produced a new set of DNA.

The Make up of DNA
The DNA in a cell is a pattern made up of four different parts called nucleotides.

An alphabet that has only four letters. DNA is a long string of these four letters.The four letters usually pair in two’s and this is standard behaviour for DNA formation, although there are certain discrepancies that happen in a variation of the standard pairing formula of DNA.

Now we have new letters in the world of DNA and this is a real scientific breakthrough.

This breakthrough has been made in the fields of synthetic biology, which has seen a real buzz in this industry from its time 15 years ago, when this synthetic technoilgoy allowed for this type of experimentation.

What is synthetic biology?

  • Synthetic biology refers to both:
    • the design and fabrication of biological components and systems that do not already exist in the natural world
    • the re-design and fabrication of existing biological systems.

There are two types of synthetic biologists. The first group uses unnatural molecules to mimic natural molecules with the goal of creating artificial life. The second group uses natural molecules and assembles them into a system that acts unnaturally. In general, the goal is to solve problems that are not easily understood through analysis and observation alone and it is only achieved by the manifestation of new models. So far, synthetic biology has produced diagnostic tools for diseases such as HIV and hepatitis viruses as well as devices from biomolecular parts with interesting functions. The term “synthetic biology” was first used on genetically engineered bacteria that were created with recombinant DNA technology which was synonymous with bioengineering. Later the term “synthetic biology” was used as a mean to redesign life which is an extension of biomimetic chemistry, where organic synthesis is used to generate artificial molecules that mimic natural molecules such as enzymes.

dna-science

WHAT DID THEY DO AND WHAT DID THEY ACHIEVE:
In the new study, the team synthesized a stretch of circular DNA known as a plasmid and inserted it into living cells of the common bacterium E. coli.

A key problem was in finding DNA BASE PAIRS that would synchronise with standard DNA and not be attacked by the DNA’s self defense mechanism.

They achieved in getting the E. coli cells to replicate these semi-synthetic DNA bases, which it is capable of replicating.

The new dna bases are not similar at all to standard DNA as the chemical make-ups are considerably different.

What they did in a quote:
“What Romesberg and his team managed to do was insert a small loop of DNA – a plasmid into an Escherichia coli cell – that’s E. coli to you and me, a bacteria that’s usually harmless but can occasionally be quite nasty, indeed.

When the E. coli bacteria replicated, it not only copied its natural DNA, but also created a new pair of the alien bases, and kept doing so generation after generation for nearly a week, until the supply of the nucleoside triphosphates necessary to build the alien bases, which were in a fluid surrounding the bacteria, ran out.”

http://www.theregister.co.uk/2014/05/08/boffinary_breakthrough_first_selfreplicating_life_with_alien_dna/

HOW DID THEY DO IT?

Romesberg and his laboratory have been working since the late 1990s to find pairs of molecules that could serve as new, functional DNA bases—and, in principle, could code for proteins and organisms that have never existed before.

With this latest discovery MAY 7th 2014, Romesberg’s laboratory had discovered, two molecules known as d5SICS and dNaM. The goal was to get the E. coli cells to replicate this semi-synthetic DNA as normally as possible.

The experiment involved the use of two new base molecules – known as d5SICS* and dNaM*, (THE name of the two NEW DNA) -, scientists found thaTht these molecules could be stably incorporated as a pair into a standard stretch of DNA known as a ‘plasmid’ molecule in vitro (in the “test tube”.).  The E COLI BACTERIUM then went on to form with the plasmid DNA, which only contained natural T-A and C-G base pairs (strands of DNA) along with the best-performing unnatural base pair.

The research was funded in part by the US National Institutes of Health

DNA GREEN

Why are Scientists globally working to redesign bacterium?

This is because Bacteria are the simplest known objects from the natural world that are capable of replicating when provided with only simpler components (e.g., broth). Still, bacteria are far from simple. Bacteria also provide the basic environment in which synthetic biological systems exist and act (i.e., they are like the power supply and chassis of a computer). By re-designing/refactoring a simple living system we hope to learn how to better couple (and decouple) our designed systems from their host environment.

MORE ON SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY and Scientists:

Synthetic biologists are trying to assemble unnatural components to support Darwinian evolution. Recently, the engineering community is seeking to extract components from the biological systems to test and confirm them as building units to be reassembled in a way that can mimic the living nature.

In the engineering aspect of synthetic biology, the suitable parts are the ones that can contribute independently to the whole system so that the behavior of an assembly can be predicted.

 

DNA RED

 

The History of DNA :

DNA consists of double-stranded anti-parallel strands each having four various nucleotides assembled from bases, sugars and phosphates which are made of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and phosphorus atoms.

“With analysis and observation alone, scientists convince themselves that the paradigms are the truth and if the data contradicts the theory, the data normally is discarded as an error, where synthesis encourages scientists to cross into the new land and define new theories.

The same synthesis has long been used in chemistry such as chromatography. The combination of chemistry, biology and engineering can therefore create artificial Darwinian systems.”

To conclude – DNA has always remained the same throughout Nature since the dawn of the earth, now the unknown DNA is in stark contrast to the view that everyliving thing has the same DNA. The oldest evolutionary ancestral human DNA to date is 40,000 years old and is the same make up as the DNA of everything else, now will this new UNKNOWN DNA work in finding further new discoveries in the spiralling world of DNA?

Other interesting fields making breakthroughs in Science are the Proteme study, which is the study of The Human Proteome Map, which maps the proteins within the body and its functions. (Links to sites below).

http://phillysportsreport.com/science-27/independent-research-groups-publish-near-complete-human-proteome-maps-240.html

Also there are in the world of biology things like extreme cross breeding to bring about Spider Goats (Synthetic biology used to cross breed ‘spiders qualities to goats. )

http://www.theguardian.com/science/2012/jan/14/synthetic-biology-spider-goat-genetics

And Stell cell embryo research : Stem Cells have the potential to develop into many different cell types in the body during early life and growth. In addition, in many tissues they serve as a sort of internal repair system, dividing essentially without limit to replenish other cells as long as the person or animal is still alive. When a stem cell divides, each new cell has the potential either to remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell. There are studies of both adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells.

http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/pages/basics1.aspx

Here’s a link for ‘explaining DNA simply put’

http://tfscientist.hubpages.com/hub/explaining-dna-to-a-six-year-old

And finally I mentioned about the Oldest Human DNA Is 400,000 Years Old – here’s the link:

http://www.ibtimes.com/oldest-human-dna-400000-years-old-why-do-scientists-call-discovery-irritating-1495796

The BMW Z4 Zagato Roadster!

leave a comment »

*This article is soon to be featured on Autoraiders.com

Read on for more on the BMW Z4 ZAGOTO ROADSTER BELOW:

BMW-Zagato-Roadster-and-Coupe-01

Initially BMW had a stint with Zagato one of the worlds finest craftsman of cars (Zagato is from Italy) and they produced for their first partnership together the BMW Zagato Coupe` for The Concorso d’Eleganza Villa d’Este held at Lake Como in northern Italy; the car showcased there on May 25th 2012 and what a beauty the partnership produced! (See above photo featured in red)

concorso-deleganza-villa-deste-2012-3

Three months later (August 2012) saw the alliance join together for the second time, between the two they showcased the BMW Z4 Zagato roadster! An even more beautiful showpiece and showstopper! The venue was Pebble Beach (California) and the Z4 Zagato Roadster was a commodity that everyone wanted to see!

concours-dElegance

400px-Pebble-beach-concours-delegance-2012

The prestigious Concours d’Elegance (California) 2012 was a perfect pit stop for this car to be showcased and you know it will only go on to attract more and more attention wherever it goes. This is the second collaboration between BMW and Zagato and I for one, hope it will not be the last. (See photo below featured in silver)

BMW-Zagato-Roadster-and-Coupe-02

Zagato is known for their handscraftsmanship and this fiery roadster was made within six weeks, from design to finished product, and it does not succumb to its predecessor in any ways. Adrian van Hooydonk, Senior Vice President BMW Group Design said of the partnership “It was only with the expertise of both companies in the manufacture of high-end one-off cars and another display of outstanding teamwork that we were able to finish the car on schedule.”

Andrea Zagato says of the six week process “BMW is a high-achieving carmaker boasting a vast well of knowledge and technical capability in this area. When you combine that with our expertise in the creation of micro-series cars and our streamlined production processes, everything is in place to produce a beautiful model like the BMW Zagato Roadster in double-quick time”.

The Z4 Zagato Roadster and the BMW Zagato Coupe` will undoubtedly be collectors items as all Zagato models are, and of course the BMW Zagato Roadster has its distinctive trademark of a silver ‘Z’ on its sides near the front wheels. Alfa Romeo were the first to work with the Zagato coach builder and since then Zagato have made more than 200 Vmax concepts, special editions and micro-series, they focus on the shell of the body and incorporate their traditional measures of ensuring aero-dynamicty and lightweight construction as initial body designer Ugo Zagato learned his trade in aviation. The company has a family heritage passed on from Ugo Zagato to Andrea Zagato and Marella Rivolta-Zagato, who are now the third generation of Ugo’s family to continue with the Zagato studio and creations. Zagato was founded in 1919 by Ugo Zagato. (See Photo Below of Ugo Zagato)

Ugo_Zagato

The Roadster is a convertible two door and a two seater car, obviously a car for the hot countries where there will be no rain to soak up only sun, although there is always the Z4 Zagato Coupe` which has a double bubble roof for those countries where there is torrential rain and the soft-top of the Zagato Roadster just won’t cut it although it too has a double bubble roof feature in a traditional Zagato hallmark, which will add to the value of the car in appearance and price. Unfortunately there is no price being given because this concept is not to go on sale, also BMW have not released any photos of the BMW with the roadster’s soft-top roof up, they have however raised the bar, standard, and the roof, metaphorically speaking, with this concept model.

BMW-Zagato-Roadster-05

There are many features about the Zagato Roadster which are endearing to everyone and anyone, here are the most prominent of them:

  • The large yet elegantly stitched beige letter ‘Z’ on the headrests of driver and passenger, giving further association to its designer specification. Behind the headrests are beige shadow headrests which incorporate roll bars.
  • The BMW has its trademark kidney grille and it is an exquisite grille made up of small letter ‘z’s.
  • The front of the car has McLaren styled scoops although smaller in size, giving this Zagato roadster a racer look.
  • The lights are shaped finely and compactly and they are attractive to look at, directly above the headlights are razor-light LED’s.
  • The lights are twin and circular shaped.
  • The bonnet has been made with three-dimensions to it and has V lines from the BMW logo at the front creating the letter V, and gives the car further impressiveness about it.
  • Beautiful leather finish on the interior seats and roll-bars and side doors.
  • There is a small lip at the front of the car and this fits in with the look of the car and it adds to the cars racing appearance.
  • The alloy wheels are 19″inch in size and star-shaped with five spokes and include a matte finish to complement the rest of the paintwork on the body.
  • A meshed grille is present on the front of the car and are contained within the air scoops and above the lip at the front.
  • The seating is low and the driver sits down in a race like position inside the cockpit, making this car a real roadster.
  • There are futuristic concept styled indicators on the wheel archs, yellow at the front and red at the back.
  • The rear of the car has eloquent matte finished exhausts, one on either side, however BMW decided to be subtle in this aspect as they do not protrude from the car.
  • The lights on the rear of the car are one long strip with a black tint all across this strip and the lights cannot be seen, providing the roadster with a sense of mysteriousness about it.
  • There are also sporty looking scoops on either side of the car, behind the front wheel archs and on the bonnet on either side.
  • A curvaceous line is visible occurring from the rear of the door and reaching to the rear of the car.
  • The rear of the roadster features a diffuser ensuring smooth airflow.
  • Long wheel base.
  • The roadster is based on the  Z4 sDrive35is there are no specifications as to the engine under the bonnet or top speed, however estimates are that it has a 3.0-liter six speed engine. With this engine it would take a time of 4.7 seconds to go from 0-60mph and the top speed is said to be the same as the Z4 sdrive35is which has been electronically-limited at a maximum speed of 155 mph.

The rear is smartly created, it is smart, prim and proper with no sharpness about it and smooth curves around the edges, it is sculptured rather than chiseled. BMW had this to say about it: “Taken as a whole, the rear of the BMW Zagato Roadster has a very broad, low-slung appearance, giving the car a wide stance and planted muscularity on the road. Beneath it, the dark diffuser gives the BMW Zagato Roadster a squat, powerful stance. The body-colored surfaces between the tailpipes draw the final lines in the distinctive, low-to-the-road and broad-set looks of the rear end.”

BMW-Zagato-Roadster-13

The interior is particularly worth mentioning in some detail, BMW says that the exterior and the interior both compliment each other well by blurring the two together: “The BMW Zagato Roadster consciously allows the boundaries between inside and outside to blur.” The interior is beige in colour and there is evidence of fine stitching everywhere, use of curvaceous brown lines on the inside of the doors and lights for both driver and passenger above the windscreen; attached to the windscreen is the rear-view mirror in a neat way.

BMW-Zagato-Roadster-Interior-02

The left hand drive steering wheel and the seats make use of the colour beige and black and the armrest between the driver seat and passenger seat is beige and can be flipped up to conveniently store whatever is necessary; it leads forward to the idrive dial (controlling the on-board computer/display) and the gear shifter which has been richly doused in the beige colour too, providing this car with an expensive look to match its exterior outfit. The idrive display is hidden in the dashboard and rises from out of nowhere for the driver to view. 

The gear shifter allows you to drive the car in manual although the car is an automatic. There is also a switch which can be used to put the car into park, other switches that can be accessed with ease are the sport and comfort mode switches placed close to the gear shifter. There is a cd-slot to listen to music as you cruise along in this wonderful machine. The Zagato roadster has a start/stop engine button which is neatly placed to the right of the steering wheel on top of a metallic finished strip, alongside this button are four large dials which allow you to control different functions such as fan heating or cooling all laid on top of the same metallic strip. The Speedometers are large and shaped in a futuristic racing style, yet again an attractive feature of the car.

BMW says of the interior colours featured and the ‘Z’ for Zagato: “The interplay of colors and composition of details bathes the interior of the BMW Zagato Roadster in a sumptuous ambience, while the brown “z” embroidered into the seats is a further clue to its origins.”

BMW-Zagato-Roadster-Interior-03

BMW also go on to mention the interior design and say “The interior itself boasts the clear structuring one would expect from BMW and invites the driver to give the machine around him a thorough workout. Details such as the sweeping horizontal lines along the inside of the doors and the full-length center console lend a rarefied sense of exclusivity to the sporty promptings and driver focus of the interior.”

BMW have mentioned that the Zagato Roadster is like its partner the Zagato Coupe` by being able to drive well at high speeds and also intended for these speeds.

The best quote from BMW on the Zagato Roadster is the following from the official press release: “The taut hallmark BMW surface treatment and Zagato’s clearly defined distribution of visual mass lend the BMW Zagato Roadster an athletic appearance – poised and eager, demanding to be driven.”

BMW-Zagato-Roadster-15

Whether the Zagato Roadster will go into production remains to be seen although BMW have not ruled it out as yet! The same is to be said about its counterpart the Zagato Coupe`. Everyone will be wondering if their is soon to be another collaboration and many including myself will be keeping are eyes open for the next showstopper from these two companies.

The Zagato Roadster and the Zagato Coupe` may be celebrated pieces, yet they are still a matter of argument, as to whether they are different pieces when compared or whether the Roadster is the Coupe` with the roof off, some argue that they have different features and that what makes them different, others say there features are similar and they look alike. I personally would add to the debate by saying that the Zagato Coupe` is not as attractive as the Zagato Roadster and the roadster is exactly what it should be, which is a fine specimen of a roadster!

The Zagato Roadster was launched in California and it seems only right to provide some additional information about BMW’s presence in America:

BMW own the Rolls-Royce brand as well as the MINI brand and the figures for the car dealers in the USA are as follows:

“The BMW Group sales organization is represented in the U.S. through networks of 338 BMW passenger car and BMW Sports Activity Vehicle centers, 139 BMW motorcycle retailers, 114 MINI passenger car dealers, and 32 Rolls-Royce Motor Car dealers.”

BMW of North America, LLC has been around in the United States since 1975 and Rolls-Royce Motor Cars began distributing vehicles in 2003.

“The BMW Group in the United States has grown to include marketing, sales, and financial service organizations for the BMW brand of motor vehicles, including motorcycles, the MINI brand, and the Rolls-Royce brand of Motor Cars.”

In South Carolina, is part of BMW Group’s global manufacturing plant, for all X5 and X3 Sports Activity Vehicles and X6 Sports Activity Coupes. BMW in 2010 announced that it would spend $750 million to expand operations at the Spartanburg plant. This investment will produce around 240,000 vehicles a year, making Spartanburg the largest car plant in the United States through its number of employees. All signs that BMW are doing well and BMW will be wanting to continue to develop their standing further in the USA.

I’ll conclude by saying that this BMW Zagato Roadster is an exclusive concept model and if it does not go into production, it will, many would hope, have some influence on the design of future production models.

See Below for a Video of The designers of the BMW Zagato Roadster – Karim Habib, head of exterior design at BMW and Norihiko Harada, Chief Designer Zagato, where they touch upon the relationship with Zagato, the six week deadline, the launch for Pebble Beach and the design of the Zagato roadster.

   

Feel free to leave comments!

Raj Mehta

BMW-Zagato-Roadster-03

BMW-Zagato-Roadster-01

%d bloggers like this: